Dr. Levine’s basic science research is focused on defining the role that histone deactylases (HDACs) and heat shock proteins (hsps) play in tolerance of renal ischemia-reperfusion, work that is now funded by the NIH. This work has demonstrated significant renal function protection via HDAC inhibition by drug and by gene knockout which has also been associated with substantial diminution of fibrosis after injury. Further work is investigating which specific HDAC pathways are involved and determining if the site of action is on the kidney or the inflammatory cascade. Additional directions of this work are defining the role that hsps play in renal ischemic damage and whether the expression of hsps is beneficial or detrimental to renal ischemic recovery. Additional work is investigating the role of gender and hormone milieu on the response to renal ischemic injury. Dr. Levine has additional collaborative basic science studies investigating the role of costimulation blockade and cytokine pathway manipulation in rejection or tolerance of limb transplantation in murine models, work that is being initiated with funding from the Department of Defense and is initiated in collaboration with Dr Wayne Hancock and Dr Scott Levin. Additional collaborative work with the Hancock laboratory involves the effects of typical immunosuppression strategies on human regulatory T cells (Treg) after transplantation.